The German Flak (aka Ground Anti-Aircraft) guns were most effective weapons, with the legendary Flak 88 mm as the standard version (which was also a formidable anti-tank gun). London: Macmillan and Co Ltd, Checkland, Peter and Holwell, Sue. Initially sensors were optical and acoustic devices developed during World War I and continued into the 1930s, but were quickly superseded by radar, which in turn was supplemented by optronics in the 1980s. The 4 cm Bofors Flak 28is a naval anti-aircraft single mounting fitted with either captured Bofors 40 mm L/60 guns, or those produced under German occupation during WWII. It is expected to be ready in 2020 to 2025. Although it was not produced in great numbers, it was reportedly one of the most effective heavy AA guns of its era. The SAMs launched by individuals are known in the United States as the Man-Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS). Initially they used QF 1-pounder "pom-pom" (a 37 mm version of the Maxim Gun).. guns or missiles are mounted on a truck or tracked chassis) or towed. Initially radar was used for airspace surveillance to detect approaching hostile aircraft. , The first US anti-aircraft cannon was a 1-pounder concept design by Admiral Twining in 1911 to meet the perceived threat of airships, that eventually was used as the basis for the US Navy's first operational anti-aircraft cannon: the 3"/23 caliber gun. Their larger 90 mm M3 gun would prove, as did the eighty-eight, to make an excellent anti-tank gun as well, and was widely used late in the war in this role. In French, air defence is called DCA (Défense contre les aéronefs, "aéronef" being the generic term for all kind of airborne device (aeroplane, airship, balloon, missile, rocket, etc.).. Until this time the British, at RAF insistence, continued their use of World War I machine guns, and introduced twin MG mountings for AAAD. [page needed]. Also on request, I can send first more photos and the Certification of Authenticity that I supply on each object sold with the name of Manufacturer, serial number and estimated year of (war-) production. A Luftwaffe Flak (Anti-Aircraft) Badge by GWL $250.  There is no evidence of other powers using drones in this application at all. While effective in fighters at 300 to 400 yards this is point blank range in naval anti-aircraft ranges. Impossible for a vintage Jeep to make that speed, yes, but imagine what happened inside this B-17 as the flak came in.  Also, in 1931 the US Army worked on a mobile anti-aircraft machine mount on the back of a heavy truck having four .30 calibre water-cooled machine guns and an optical director. In the process, the flak explosion had completely ripped off the lower belly Gun Position. AAA battalions were also used to help suppress ground targets. Output from the gun-laying radar was fed to the M-9 director, an electronic analogue computer developed at Bell Laboratories to calculate the lead and elevation corrections for the guns. Malborough: The Crowood Press, Hogg, Ian V. 1998. 4.5-inch at Singapore had the first success in shooting down Japanese bombers. The maximum distance at which a gun or missile can engage an aircraft is an important figure. If an attacker is able to penetrate this layer, then the next layers would come from the surface-to-air missiles carried by the carrier's escorts; the area-defence missiles, such as the RIM-67 Standard, with a range of up to 100 nmi, and the point-defence missiles, like the RIM-162 ESSM, with a range of up to 30 nmi. These short-range weapons proved more deadly, and the "Red Baron" is believed to have been shot down by an anti-aircraft Vickers machine gun. The French balloon gun appeared in 1910, it was an 11-pounder but mounted on a vehicle, with a total uncrewed weight of 2 tons. German Flak accounted for 50 of the 72 RAF bombers lost over Berlin on the night of March 24th, 1944. Most Batteries could have a dual role to defend against sea and land targets. While these rules originate at the highest authority, different rules can apply to different types of air defence covering the same area at the same time. www.catalinabook.comÂ or to the Amazon order page with 30+ superb reviews as rarely seen about Vintage Aviation Books: My books are the ultimate Christmas/ B-Day gifts for your family, friends or yourself, loaded with hundreds of unique photos and stories. Similar systems were adopted in other countries and for example the later Sperry device, designated M3A3 in the US, was also used by Britain as the Predictor AA No 2. At short range, the apparent target area is relatively large, the trajectory is flat and the time of flight is short, allowing to correct lead by watching the tracers. Smoke shells were also available for some AA guns, these bursts were used as targets during training. AAAD usually operates under the tightest rules. These included the use of artillery, small arms, and saboteurs. Their use is assisted but not governed by IFF (identification friend or foe) electronic devices originally introduced during the Second World War. , The USSR introduced a new 76 mm M1931 in the early 1930s and an 85 mm M1938 towards the end of the decade. However, for most countries the main effort has tended to be homeland defence. Further research started during the war. The maximum running time of the fuse, this set the maximum usable time of flight. The same thing occurred in the USSR after the introduction of their SA-2 Guideline systems. The anti-aircraft gun (or AA gun) was an Allied anti-aircraft defense during the Second World War. The outer layer will usually be provided by the carrier's aircraft, specifically its AEW&C aircraft combined with the CAP. NATO refers to airborne air defence as counter-air and naval air defence as anti-aircraft warfare. At the start of the 20th century these were either very primitive or non-existent. In general, a fixed system can be identified, attacked and destroyed whereas a mobile system can show up in places where it is not expected. By the early 20th century balloon, or airship, guns, for land and naval use were attracting attention. It may have caused a major underestimation of the threat and an inflated view of their AA systems.. The cost of aircraft research and development was small and the results could be large. Airburst fuses were either igniferious (based on a burning fuse) or mechanical (clockwork). For shorter-range work, a lighter weapon with a higher rate of fire is required, to increase a hit probability on a fast airborne target. Demobilisation meant that most AA guns were taken out of service, leaving only the most modern. Dedicated weapons such as anti-radiation missiles and advanced electronics intelligence and electronic countermeasures platforms seek to suppress or negate the effectiveness of an opposing air-defence system. The United States was still emerging from the effects of the Great Depression and funds for the military had been sparse. , In 1925 the British adopted a new instrument developed by Vickers. Mid war 5.25-inch HAA gun started being emplaced in some permanent sites around London. Igniferious fuses were not well suited for anti-aircraft use. Artillery weapons of this sort have for the most part been superseded by the effective surface-to-air missile systems that were introduced in the 1950s, although they were still retained by many nations. The fuse length was determined by time of flight, but the burning rate of the gunpowder was affected by altitude. Before the war it was recognised that ammunition needed to explode in the air. The introduction of the guided missile resulted in a significant shift in anti-aircraft strategy. The WWII POW Who Sank A German Ship With A Milk Tin! This is a (hopefully) complete list of the anti-aircraft guns used by the Wehrmacht, compiled by Antonio Pena with additional info from the other members of the forum. Air defence had made huge advances, albeit from a very low starting point. View; G25558 Add to Compare. The system had to be redesigned for both the English measurement system and mass production, as the original documents recommended hand filing and drilling to shape. The designer was Wilhelm Peekhaus and the original manufacturer was the Juncker firm of Berlin. However, all ground-based air defence was removed from Royal Air Force (RAF) jurisdiction in 2004. The United States Navy had also put some thought into the problem, When the US Navy began to rearm in 1939 in many ships the primary short ranged gun was the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. This means that projectiles either have to be guided to hit the target, or aimed at the predicted position of the target at the time the projectile reaches it, taking into account speed and direction of both the target and the projectile. By December 1916 there were 183 AA Sections defending Britain (most with the 3-inch), 74 with the BEF in France and 10 in the Middle East.. The Germans missile research was the most advanced of the war as the Germans put considerable effort in the research and development of rocket systems for all purposes. However, during the Second World War the RAF Regiment was formed to protect airfields everywhere, and this included light air defences. The British also fitted tracers to their shells for use at night. The cannon was fully automatic and effective against aircraft flying at altitudes up to 4200 m. The cannon was produced in both towed and self-propelled versions. The Germans had radar directed flak batteries and searchlights to direct their fire. Guns are being increasingly pushed into specialist roles, such as the Dutch Goalkeeper CIWS, which uses the GAU-8 Avenger 30 mm seven-barrel Gatling gun for last ditch anti-missile and anti-aircraft defence. It may be used to protect naval, ground, and air forces in any location. Remarkable flak damage which in many cases led to injured crew members, fatalities or the crashing of the aircraft. These included the use of artillery, small arms, and saboteurs. G27298 Add to Compare. Other nations, such as Japan or Israel, choose to integrate their ground based air defence systems into their air force. Germany therefore added a 3.7 cm. One feature that makes RPGs useful in Air Defence is that they are fused to automatically detonate at 920 m. If aimed into the air this causes the warhead to airburst which can release a limited but potentially damaging amount of shrapnel hitting a helicopter landing or taking off. , "Flak" redirects here. An example of area defence is the defence of Saudi Arabia and Israel by MIM-104 Patriot missile batteries during the first Gulf War, where the objective was to cover populated areas. For other uses, see, Air defence versus air defence suppression, Spring 2007 issue of the American Association of Aviation Historians Journal. Later, twin (flakzwilling) and quadruple (flakvierling) configurations were installed. L/60 Nazi Germany: World War II 75 7.5 cm L/45 M/16 anti aircraft gun â¦ However, the German Würzburg radar was capable of providing data suitable for controlling AA guns, and the British AA No 1 Mk 1 GL radar was designed to be used on AA gun positions. During World War II the Royal Marines also provided air defence units; formally part of the mobile naval base defence organisation, they were handled as an integral part of the army-commanded ground based air defences. Flack as a criticism comes from the military sense, as it feels like an attack. Bulletin of Ordnance Information, No.245, pp. The German Army also adapted a revolving cannon that came to be known to Allied fliers as the "flaming onion" from the shells in flight. In particular the Tactical High Energy Laser can be used in the anti-aircraft and anti-missile role. Machine guns in AA mountings was used both ashore and afloat. The capability of fire control instruments to determine target height at long range. London: War Office 26|Manuals|2494. 1911. , After World War I the US Army started developing a dual-role (AA/ground) automatic 37 mm cannon, designed by John M. Browning. Smaller boats and ships typically have machine-guns or fast cannons, which can often be deadly to low-flying aircraft if linked to a radar-directed fire-control system radar-controlled cannon for point defence. But I could not find any reliable percentages of Flak-hits, how many took they out of the air per hundred Allied Bombers? The latter with their iconic Douglas DC series, of which their DC-3/ C-47/ Dakotas are still flying in numbers until today! Media in category "3.7 cm FlaK 18/36/37/43" The following 27 files are in this category, out of 27 total. In some countries, such as Britain and Germany during the Second World War, the Soviet Union, and modern NATO and the United States, ground-based air defence and air defence aircraft have been under integrated command and control. The Army's Anti-aircraft command, which was under command of the Air Defence UK organisation, grew to 12 AA divisions in 3 AA corps. As well as the small and large systems, for effective air defence there must be intermediate systems. In the later decades of the Cold War this included the United States Air Force's operating bases in UK. , Britain had successfully tested a new HAA gun, 3.6-inch, in 1918. An Anti-UAV Defence System (AUDS) is a system for defence against military unmanned aerial vehicles. Measures such as camouflaging important buildings were common in the Second World War. However, arrangements in the UK were also called 'anti-aircraft', abbreviated as AA, a term that remained in general use into the 1950s. With the liberation of Antwerp, the port city immediately became the highest priority target, and received the largest number of V-1 and V-2 missiles of any city. AA gunnery was a difficult business. Nevertheless, a pattern had been set: anti-aircraft warfare would employ heavy weapons to attack high-altitude targets and lighter weapons for use when aircraft came to lower altitudes. Given the target height, its operators tracked the target and the predictor produced bearing, quadrant elevation and fuse setting. It remained in service throughout the war but 18-pdr guns were lined down to take the 13-pdr shell with a larger cartridge producing the 13-pr QF 9 cwt and these proved much more satisfactory. However, in most countries the main effort in HAA guns until the mid-1930s was improving existing ones, although various new designs were on drawing boards.  However, effective ceiling for heavy AA guns was affected by nonballistic factors: The essence of air defence is to detect hostile aircraft and destroy them. Carrier battle groups are especially well defended, as not only do they typically consist of many vessels with heavy air defence armament but they are also able to launch fighter jets for combat air patrol overhead to intercept incoming airborne threats. After the First World Warit was sometimes prefixed by 'Light' or 'Heavy' (LAA or HAA) to classify a type of gun or unit. Top-scoring for Flak: 56 bombers were destroyed or crippled by flak during a B-17 raid on Merseburg in November of 1944. Erhardt also had a 12-pounder, while Vickers Maxim offered a 3-pounder and Schneider a 47 mm. This is in contrast to some (largely communist or ex-communist) countries where not only are there provisions for air defence in the army, navy and air force but there are specific branches that deal only with the air defence of territory, for example, the Soviet PVO Strany. The trailer can be customised with liveâ¦  Nevertheless, while 20 mm was better than a machine gun and mounted on a very small trailer made it easy to move, its effectiveness was limited. In this video, you'll find out the percentages of where Allied bombers got hit the most. At the beginning of the war, the 20mm flak was the standard antiaircraft armament aboard U-boats. After the war most were left to rot. Throughout the 20th century, air defence was one of the fastest-evolving areas of military technology, responding to the evolution of aircraft and exploiting various enabling technologies, particularly radar, guided missiles and computing (initially electromechanical analogue computing from the 1930s on, as with equipment described below). The problem was of successfully aiming a shell to burst close to its target's future position, with various factors affecting the shells' predicted trajectory. In general, naval vessels should be treated with respect by aircraft, however the reverse is equally true. The US started an upgrade of their defences using the Nike Ajax missile, and soon the larger anti-aircraft guns disappeared. In particular the U.S. Army set up a huge air defence network around its larger cities based on radar-guided 90 mm and 120 mm guns. NATO calls these rules Weapon Control Orders (WCO), they are: Until the 1950s, guns firing ballistic munitions were the standard weapon; guided missiles then became dominant, except at the very shortest ranges. The arrival back of this Bomber on Terra Firma is a God Gift by itself and proof of the incredible structural strength of this construction of all-aluminium aircraft, that started to become mainstream manufacturing in the early-mid 1930s at the Boeing, Lockheed, and Douglas factories. For insurgents the most effective method of countering aircraft is to attempt to destroy them on the ground, either by penetrating an airbase perimeter and destroying aircraft individually, e.g. 1998. After the First World War it was sometimes prefixed by 'Light' or 'Heavy' (LAA or HAA) to classify a type of gun or unit. Poland's AA defences were no match for the German attack and the situation was similar in other European countries. They may extend along a nation's border, e.g.  In Russian, the AA systems are called zenitnye (i.e. 3″/50 caliber guns (Marks 10, 17, 18, and 20) first entered service in 1915 as a refit to USS Texas (BB-35), and were subsequently mounted on many types of ships as the need for anti-aircraft protection was recognized. The 3.7 cm Flak 18/36/37 was a series of anti-aircraft guns produced by Nazi Germany that saw widespread service in the Second World War. History of the Ministry of Munitions. However, arrangements in the UK were also called 'anti-aircraft', abbreviated as AA, a term that remained in general use into the 1950s. Zeppelins, being hydrogen-filled balloons, were targets for incendiary shells and the British introduced these with airburst fuses, both shrapnel type-forward projection of incendiary 'pot' and base ejection of an incendiary stream. All armies soon deployed AA guns often based on their smaller field pieces, notably the French 75 mm and Russian 76.2 mm, typically simply propped up on some sort of embankment to get the muzzle pointed skyward. As the capabilities of aircraft and their engines improved it was clear that their role in future war would be even more critical as their range and weapon load grew. The Browning 37 mm proved prone to jamming, and was eventually replaced in AA units by the Bofors 40 mm. Fixed AA defences, using HAA and LAA, were established by the Army in key overseas places, notably Malta, Suez Canal and Singapore. Soldiers shot at them with shotguns and machine-guns but failed to prevent them from dropping 45 bombs over the city, hitting military installations, the railway station and many other, mostly civilian, targets in the city. "The Bofors gun", 3rd edn. For more such War/ vintage Aviation related stories, please come to my website, where you find more photographs and info about my Books and Blogs.  It includes surface based, subsurface (submarine launched), and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements, and passive measures (e.g. This led to the Height/Range Finder (HRF), the first model being the Barr & Stroud UB2, a 2-metre optical coincident rangefinder mounted on a tripod. While HAA and its associated target acquisition and fire control was the primary focus of AA efforts, low-level close-range targets remained and by the mid-1930s were becoming an issue. Production of the QF 3.7-inch (94 mm) began in 1937; this gun was used on mobile carriages with the field army and transportable guns on fixed mountings for static positions. A fun clip showing the firing of a newly restored WW2-era German 88mm flak (anti-aircraft & anti-tank) gun. However, it was new and often lacked influential 'friends' in the competition for a share of limited defence budgets. A redesigned gun 3.7 cm FlaK 36 entered service in 1938, it too had a two-wheel carriage. Often, the high-altitude long-range missile systems force aircraft to fly at low level, where anti-aircraft guns can bring them down. Area defence systems have medium to long range and can be made up of various other systems and networked into an area defence system (in which case it may be made up of several short range systems combined to effectively cover an area). By the late 1930s the British definition was "that height at which a directly approaching target at 400 mph (=643.6 km/h) can be engaged for 20 seconds before the gun reaches 70 degrees elevation". Service trials demonstrated another problem however: that ranging and tracking the new high-speed targets was almost impossible. "Modern Artillery in the Field". Flakfortet; Flak jacket, protective clothing worn by soldiers and others to protect themselves from debris and shrapnel However, since balloons were slow moving, sights were simple. There are a total of [ 9 ] WW2 German FlaK Guns (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. During the Cold War the runways and taxiways of some airfields were painted green. The term air defence was probably first used by Britain when Air Defence of Great Britain (ADGB) was created as a Royal Air Force command in 1925. York Safe and Lock would be used as the contracting agent. The 90 mm and 120 mm guns would continue to be used into the 1950s. A dual propose mount it was used in both the surface and AA roles with great success. In this method when the sights were on the target, the barrel was pointed at the target's future position. One term is "ceiling", the maximum ceiling being the height a projectile would reach if fired vertically, not practically useful in itself as few AA guns are able to fire vertically, and maximum fuse duration may be too short, but potentially useful as a standard to compare different weapons.  As early as 1928 the US Navy saw the need to replace the .50 caliber machine gun with something heavier. In February 2018, an Israeli F-16 fighter was downed in the occupied Golan Heights province, after it had attacked an Iranian target in Syria. Areas can vary widely in size. The army was forbidden from considering anything larger than .50-inch. It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war. Japan introduced powered gliders in 1940 as drones but apparently was unable to dive bomb. 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