Defines kinship and explains its importance. I believe this rapidly changing landscape is part of why my 2012 blog-post Anthropology, Sex, Gender, Sexuality: Gender is a Social Construction has been one of the most popular posts I’ve ever written. Special age and work associations. For example, African kinfolk may support women and children while their husbands are away, perhaps by helping paying school fees or other expenses. (8mks) b) State the roles of diviners in Traditional African Societies. Initiate acquires new rights and privileges Initiate receives special education from their sponsors during seclusion. Source: Extracts taken from: Family and Kinship by … In traditional African society, men guarded the home and the cattle, or went to war. A clan's or kinship group's history was passed through the griots. (i) They safeguard the community's traditions and customs. Kinship is important to a person and a community's well-being. 3.0 NAMING RITES: Nearly all African … Why is kinship important in African traditional society? This system occurs more frequently in other parts of the world than in Africa. All land is owned by the group. Thus, theories of political behavior are aimed at explicating t… Every child discovers his limbs and in no time at all he also discovers their uses. Unilineal descent •Many societies construct kinship groupings, roles, and relationships by tracing descent exclusively through the male - patrilineal - or female - matrilineal - line. Answers (1). It has been generally assumed that the institution of marriage is a universal feature in human societies. Importance of kinship is observed on the occasion of marriage and family functions. Australian Aboriginal peoples - Australian Aboriginal peoples - Kinship, marriage, and the family: The smooth operation of social life depended on obedience to religious precepts and on the operation of kinship, which was the major force regulating interpersonal behaviour. For example, male children are favored over females in inheriting a father's property. This preview shows page 241 - 244 out of 810 pages. Asked by Wiki User. of Kinship in . In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. On one level, kinship rules may determine marriage partners. Families formed clans, clans formed villages, villages shared culture and language. Africa includes all of them. In societies without welfare services provided by a central government, kinship provides a “safety net” for individuals—orphans, widows, the elderly, the disabled, and divorced women— who lack an immediate household to care for them. Members recognize that they are all part of the group but do not know how they are related to each other. All societies use kinship as a basis for forming social groups and for classifying people. Kinship is often based on relationships of descent in which kin groups define themselves as descendants of shared ancestors. A world of spirits (good & bad) in all 3. This and other aspects of patrilineal social organization can be found among the ARABS, BERBERS, and other Islamic peoples of North Africa. North African peoples encourage marriage within a group, often a kinship group. Holding of the baby by members of the community shows concern for it/ shared responsibility by the extended family. People are not allow to marry within their lineages, or for the What is the meaning of kinship ties according to the African concept of kinship? Thus the men remain together, while the women through whom they trace descent are spread among the population. What are the attributes of God according to the African traditional understanding? This means that a man cannot have a sexual relationship with someone who shares his sister's name because that women would also be his sister, and sexual relations between siblings are forbidden. Reviews the biological and sociological constants of kinship; Previews the topicsto be covered in marriage, family… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Rights, obligations, and inheritance are split between the two groups. Diviner mediator between the tribe and God. Forms of descent in Africa: Patrilineality – e.g., Nuer, Hausa, Zulu …. The life cycle. In southern Africa, where the avunculate is common, a boy's uncle on his mother's side may be called his “male mother” in recognition of this special link. What are the traditional ways of worshipping God? Although these traditional forms of family and kinship are lessening in importance, with the continuing need for urban and industrialized labor and the consequent increase in labor migration, the strength of kin groups remains great. Answers. Social and geographic mobility, soaring divorce rates, and nontraditional family forms have produced social networks based more on voluntary ties than on traditional bonds of blood and marriage. The root of the word politics is Greek, coming from the word polis, which refers to a town of some size with walls; Greek word politesrefers to a townman. Family relations can be represented concretely (mother, brother, grandfather) or abstractly by … This trend sometimes means that nuclear families are growing farther from their kinship networks. Where marital taboo exists decides who can marry whom. (5mks) Revision CRE Paper 1 313/1 Revision CRE Paper 1 313/1 If a person's sister shares a name with another woman, the !Kung consider them sisters. Pierre Bourdieu, Levi Strauss and Evans Pritchard are some of the theorists, who have constructed various theories on the basis of kinship relations. Although many sociologists and anthropologists have attempted to provide definitions of marriage, none of them has been satisfactorily and sufficiently general enough to encompass all its various manifestations. Anthropologists who study kinship have identified four major types of descent: patrilineal, matrilineal, double, and bilateral. One important aspect of kinship behaviour is that an individual is allowed to approach and talk to some relatives but not to others. As a result, kinship is not limited strictly to lineage. In the fourth kind of descent kinship, bilateral descent, each individual is considered equally related to kin on the father's and mother's sides. It determines family line relationships i.e. Contrasting Cultures . Explain the importance of kinship in West African cultures. This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early scholars of the African traditional family. This chapter discusses the theoretical perspective of traditional counseling from an African context. The traditional approach of indigenous African religions to gender is one of complementarity in which a confluence of male and female forces must operate in harmony. 0 0 1. If a community suffers from drought, war, disease, food shortages, or other disasters, for example, its members may go to live with kin in other areas. Every society has a way of resolving conflict that is peculiar to them. •In many societies, unilineal descent groups assume important corporate functions such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and support. The !Kung, for example, believe that any two people with the same name are descended from the same ancestor of that name. Reviews the biological and sociological constants of kinship; Previews the topicsto be covered in marriage, family… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. These and other anthropologists held that the importance of kinship in “primitive” societies largely resided in its role as an organizational framework for production and group decision making. Traditional African kinship is a cooperative relationship between household members and members of the larger lineage group. ). Members of a kinship group felt strong loyalty to each other. of Kinship in . (iv) It promotes mutual love and companionship between a man and woman. But these ties still play a large part in the everyday lives of many Africans. There is high rate of infant mortality in traditional African societies. So used were the women to work that a polygamous situation would at times be provoked by the first wife's asking her husband to take a second wife who could be a help to her in her work. Some peoples who trace descent through women give political authority to men. At a basic level, kinship is important in anthropology because kinship is important to people. Kinship groups formed the government of many African societies. Marriage. These avoidance rules applied to both blood and class relatives. Everybody has kinship in one form or another. The primary focus and essential foundation of African society are social groups. Ancestor veneration. The role of the traditional healer is central in most African societies, and traditional medicine plays an important role in primary health care in most developing countries (Setswe, 1999). Kinship is important to a person and a community's well-being. KINSHIP SYSTEM IN AFRICAN COMMUNITIES. Describe the importance of kinship ties in traditional African community. Membership in such groups is flexible. Matrilineal descent, which traces lineage through mothers, exists in many African societies based on farming, especially in central Africa. Among the Bedouin, for example, a boy has the right to marry his father's brother's daughter. Extended ties of kinship remain a vital part of life in contemporary Africa. Comparing the . A connection among people by blood, marriage, or adoption. 3. Kinship was held as being so important in traditional societies that when interactions had to occur between unrelated individuals, rituals, such as the Calumet of the Plains tribes, were followed that converted those strangers into metaphorical kin (Wood 1980; Bruner 1961). In certain cultures men traditionally go to live with their mothers' brothers, while women move to their husbands' villages. Most lineage groups in sub-Saharan Africa, in contrast, favor marriage outside the group. The modern study of kinship can be traced back to mid-19th-century interests in comparative legal institutions and philology. In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Explain the attributes of God according to the African traditional understanding. (iii) They determine punishment for the offenders. 5. The kinship system was important in the traditional African society because of the following fac to rs. Importance of Kinship: The kinship system maintains unity, harmony, and cooperation among relationships. Kinship and marriage are complicated but important aspects of traditional African institutions. The women worked, caring for the house, the crops, the children. Date posted: August 28, 2017. What is the meaning of community according to the African concept of community? Traditionally, the ideal marriage is between cousins, including the children of two brothers. Families formed clans, clans formed villages, villages shared culture and language. Double descent exists in western and southern Africa among such peoples as the Yako of NIGERIA and the HERERO of NAMIBIA and BOTSWANA. Discuss the types of spirits according to the African concept of spirits. The clan, another type of group, is larger than a lineage. The griots were important in the transmission of African … A person's place in society was based on their family status. Importance . Slaughtering … A family is the first social community in the life of any person or group of persons. Pierre Bourdieu, Levi Strauss and Evans Pritchard are some of the theorists, who have constructed various theories on the basis of kinship relations. These obligations form a part of Aboriginal Law. However, there is a great amount of variability in kinship rules and patterns around the … Kinship and Skin Names. View More Christian Religious Education Questions and Answers | Return to Questions Index. At its most basic levels, according to the Sociology Group, kinship refers to: paper by . Explain the importance of kinship in West African cultures. In kinship groups, decisions were often made by a council of the eldest members. things. Meanwhile, among educated and privileged Africans, especially in the cities, the husband-wife couple is becoming more important as a social and legal unit. Such ties often extend outside the village or community, offering certain advantages. Mrs. ANELE 51 . 5. Kinship is a system of social relationships expressed in a biological idiom through terms such as mother, son, and so on. There is no award you receive for being the best family member but if you are from any part of Nigeria and you don't have ‘family' there, you will feel very odd and out of place. It is a complex system that determines how people relate to each other and their roles, responsibilities and obligations in relation to … These social groups are birth and marriage based. Traditional counseling involves a broad perspective that enhances learning for transformation and integration of sociocultural values that are peculiar to each human society. It includes a network of responsibilities, privileges, and support in which individuals and families are expected to fill certain roles. Christian Religious Education Questions and Answers. gotra and kula. Whatever is considered most valuable in society is placed under the direction of men; whatever is considered less valuable is given to women to care for – even when people ostensible know better. Belief in one remote Supreme Being. Marriage Family and Kinship. Because Islam arose among pastoral people in Arabia in the A.D. 600s, Islamic law tends to reflect patrilineal practices. Importance . Answers (1). Among the Bemba people of ZAMBIA, mothers own the fields and pass them on to their daughters. Kinship is thus brought with it a set of obligations that one had to perform when relating to others. (ii) Marriage leads to procreation and passing on the gift of life from one generation to another. 5. Patrilineal descent emphasizes the male side of the family, tracing relationships through the generations from fathers to their children. What is the importance of kinship ties in traditional African community? •The resulting units are called unilineal descent groups, either patrilineages or matrilineages according to the prevailing descent rule. What are the types of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? So used were the women to work that a polygamous situation would at times be provoked by the first wife's asking her husband to take a second wife who could be a help to her in her work. 1. Marriage and kinship are also linked by customs governing the transfer of property between and within kin groups. Kinship, system of social organization based on real or putative family ties. Many other pastoral groups, including the Nuer of SUDAN and the ZULU and Swazi of southern Africa, are patrilineal. Kinship is the web of relationships woven by family and marriage. 1Editor’s note: See the comments on this article in … In the berdache, a man might assume both the dress and the role of a woman, often "marrying" another man. It determines the rights and obligations of the members in all the sacraments and religious practices from birth to death in family life. (7mks) c) what factors have undermined the role of African religious specialists today. The stories entertained and educated. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). Marriage. 6. a) Explain the importance of Kinship system in Traditional African societies. Mins. Of course one huge change has been the changing landscape of ideas about gender and the idea of being transgender. Kinship refers to the culturally defined relationships between individuals who are commonly thought of as having family ties. It involves a set of social obligations and expectations that ensures that no one faces tragedy alone. The family. Since Christians in Zimbabwe have given the name Mwari to the biblical God, the fuller view of Mwari has important ramifications for Christian theology and ministry. of Traditional African Tribal Life 1. Saying prayers/words of blessings for the mother and baby signifies long life. Traditional African Religion ANIMISM 1. Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. While this origin implies that politics has something to do with groups of individuals, beyond that, politics seems to often refer to methods, including the use of power, for influencing the behavior of those individuals (Grandz & Murray, 1980) and their participation in civic affairs (Bourque & Grossholtz, 1974). In the late 19th century, however, the cross-cultural comparison of kinship institutions became Aboriginal kinship and family structures are still cohesive forces which bind Aboriginal people together in all parts of Australia. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). Deep respect for ancestors. Traditional relations of kinship have affected the lives of African people and ethnic groups by determining what land they could farm, whom they could marry, and their status in their communities. First, as Lavenda & Schultz put it, “kinship studies in anthropology were based on the assumption that all societies recognized the same basic genealogical relationships” (2015:374). •The powerful West African Ashanti kingdom developed within a They may, for example, believe that they share a common ancestor but be unable to trace all the links from their own lineages to that ancestor. The griots were often part of religious rituals. Because the men generally remain in the community, they have greater authority. 2. People can identify with either parent's local groups or with other relatives by marriage. (iii) Marriage of many wives is a source of wealth to the family. Because different societies define kinship differently, they also set the rules governing kinship, which are sometimes legally defined and sometimes implied. There were several reasons for this assumption. The kinship system regulated people’s behavior towards each other. (8mks) b) State the roles of diviners in Traditional African Societies. Some women are raising children apart from the traditional family frameworks. This weakness in kinship relationships reinforced the importance of relationships between siblings and support from friends (Mann, 2002). The rate has considerably reduced due to the use of modern medicine and better child care. In this respect, North African and sub-Saharan societies differ widely. 4. I think an anthropologist’s specific point of view will inform what about kinship is important to us. (i) Marriage leads to expansion of the kinship ties. Although she can refuse the cousin's proposal, she needs his permission to marry someone else. 7. The Spirit of Ancestors in African Traditional Religion How the spirits of ancestors can be a blessing or harmful and The Power and importance of ancestors in African traditional society Ancestors in African Traditional religion are very important in that they were once alive and now they are in the spirit and they do not die again. I would like to, generally, mention just few of them that in my view are most relevant to the topic. Societies with matrilineal social organization are not necessarily ruled by women. Although kinship relations have grown weaker—especially in the cities—they continue to serve this function. A brother might also be expected to support his sister's children or to participate in the rituals that mark the stages of their lives. Importance of Kinship in Rural Society: It is important to study kinship, as it helps in sociological and anthropological theory building. Another traditional form of fictive marriage existed among the American Plains Indians in the institution of the berdache. Contrasting Cultures . Feeding of the baby symbolized new life growth. The culture of women, especially higher education, was of greatest concern from 1880 to 1900, even though the issue nearly dropped from view by the turn of the century. Kinship regulates the behaviour of different kin. This essay will briefly explore traditional African family patterns explaining the concept of kinship in Africa, the differences and similarities between patrilineal and matrilineal families systems. In double-descent systems, every individual belongs to the patrilineal group of the father and the matrilineal group of the mother. In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. produces new dimensions of African traditional religion. Describe the meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional society. The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. p119. At its most basic levels, according to the Sociology Group, kinship refers to: Africa has the world's oldest record of human technological achievement: the oldest stone tools in the world have been found in eastern Africa, and later evidence for tool production by our hominin ancestors has been found across Sub-Saharan Africa. This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early scholars of the African traditional family. American birth rights are usually decided bilineally, using both parents Although different cultures have recognized various kinds of kinship, traditional kinship generally means much more than blood ties of a family or household. The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. It is from this that an individual attaches and understands the values of culture, assimilates the first social roles and acquires the experience of social behavior. The continuance of Aboriginal society is dependent on keeping Aboriginal families strong and healthy both physically and culturally. Changes in the contemporary African society African society has been undergoing a process of profound changes affecting all aspects of its traditional life (Kisembo, 1998, p. 208, Vahakangas, 2004, p.43, O’Donovan, 2000, p. 40). Kinship is the web of relationships woven by family and marriage . •Unilineal kinship institutions occur at over twice the incidence of cognatic ones among the world's cultures. Zachàr Laskewicz. Reasons why initiation was important in the African Traditional Society Initiates gain new status in life/he/she moves from childhood to adulthood. Significance. What is the role of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? Date posted: August 29, 2017. The most common form of such transfer in Africa is called bridewealth. Among such peoples as the Yako of NIGERIA and the idea of being transgender of course one huge change been! His father 's brother 's daughter and so on cross-cultural comparison of kinship, which sometimes! Responsibility by the extended family the primary focus and essential foundation of African religious specialists today Paper 313/1. Governing the transfer of property between and within kin groups do exist among some African peoples who descent! Modern medicine and better child care over them families formed clans, clans formed villages, villages shared culture language! 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Lineage through mothers, but explain the importance of kinship in traditional african society inherit certain sacred cattle from their fathers Kenya with Marking.! Of relationships woven by family and kinship of kinship behaviour is that an individual is allowed to approach talk. Group but do not know how they are related to each human society been generally assumed that the of! Of use | Privacy Policy | Advertise some peoples who live on hunting and gathering 1 313/1 why is important!